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MDPI - BIOLOGIC Special Issue: Plastic Pollution and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds from Plastics

Updated: May 25

- By Cozorici Derniza.




Plastic pollution is a growing environmental problem that is affecting the health of our planet and its inhabitants. Plastic pollution refers to the accumulation of plastic waste in the environment, including oceans, rivers, lakes, and on land. The problem is caused by the increasing amount of plastic products that are produced and used, as well as the lack of effective waste management systems in many parts of the world.

One of the biggest issues with plastic pollution is the fact that plastic does not biodegrade. Instead, it breaks down into smaller pieces and the persistent plastics in the environment, known as plastic debris, are categorized according to particle size as macroplastics with dimensions ranging from 5 to 20 mm, microplastics with dimensions less than 5 millimeters, and nanoplastics with dimensions less than 0.1 microns [1]. Microplastics and nanoplastics have been identified as substantial marine pollutants, with hundreds of thousands of metric tons estimated to be floating on the surfaces of the main marine ecosystems. Recent research has revealed that microplastics and nanoplastics are penetrating freshwater bodies and numerous terrestrial habitats. In the atmosphere, microplastics and nanoplastics have been found in remote areas, including the Arctic and the Alps. These particles can travel long distances through the air and can be deposited far from their original source [2], [3].

The environmental impact of microplastics and nanoplastics is still not fully understood, but studies have shown that they can have negative effects on range of organisms, including fish, birds, and mammals. Microplastics and nanoplastics can be ingested by these organisms, leading to physical harm or even death. In addition, they can also have chemical and toxicological effects, as they can act as a carrier for other pollutants and chemicals that are harmful to animals and humans.

Plastic products contain a variety of chemical components, such as bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, and flame retardants, which are known to act as endocrine disruptors. Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system, leading to a range of health effects. BPA is a chemical that is commonly used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, which are used in a wide range of products, including food and beverage containers, medical devices, and electronics. Phthalates are another class of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) commonly found in plastics, particularly in flexible PVC (polyvinyl chloride) products, such as food packaging, toys, and medical devices. Flame retardants are chemicals added to plastics to make them less flammable.

They are commonly found in electronics, furniture, and other household products. Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds from plastics is a concern for human health, particularly for vulnerable populations such as fetuses, infants, and children [4]. A growing number of scientific studies have linked the presence of these substances in our environment to the pathogenesis of infertility, autoimmune, and metabolic disorders. Yet, correlating these compounds to negative health effects in people remains difficult and debatable [5]–[7].

Endocrine disruptors can leach out of plastic products when they are exposed to heat, sunlight, or acidic environments. For example, BPA, a common plasticizer, can leach into the aqueous phase from plastic bottles, with typical migration rates of 1.84-4.83 ng/cm2/h at 70 °C [8].

Increasing data shows that interactions between EDCs and the microbiome may have an impact on host health. These chemicals can disrupt the microbial balance in the gut, which can lead to a range of health issues [9]. Endocrine disruptors can also interact with other toxins in the environment, leading to synergistic or antagonistic effects. For example, the presence of endocrine disruptors can make organisms more vulnerable to other pollutants.

In order to address the issue of microplastic and nanoplastic pollution, it is important to reduce the use of plastic products and to promote sustainable practices for the disposal of plastic waste. This can include reducing the use of single-use plastics, improving recycling programs, and promoting the development of alternative materials to plastic. The sustainable reuse of plastics depends on several conditions, including the quality of the plastic, the type of product it is being used for, and the potential for leaching of toxic chemicals.

To ensure that plastics are being reused in a sustainable way, we need to carefully consider these factors and develop appropriate regulations and guidelines. To achieve a sustainable reduction of the toxic impacts of plastics, we need to reduce our overall plastic consumption, design products that are more easily recyclable, and encourage the development of more sustainable alternatives to plastic.

Additionally, it is important to conduct further research into the impacts of microplastics and nanoplastics, in order to better understand the extent of their environmental and health impacts, and to develop effective strategies for mitigation and management.


The special issue "Plastic Pollution and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds from Plastics"

is now open for submissions. For more details, please visit the Special Issue Webpage




References

[1] A. Amobonye, P. Bhagwat, S. Raveendran, S. Singh, and S. Pillai, “Environmental Impacts of Microplastics and Nanoplastics: A Current Overview,” Front. Microbiol., vol. 12, p. 3728, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.3389/FMICB.2021.768297/BIBTEX.

[2] D. Allen et al., “Microplastics and nanoplastics in the marine-atmosphere environment,” Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. 2022 36, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 393–405, May 2022, doi: 10.1038/s43017-022-00292-x.

[3] D. E. Ortega and D. Cortés-Arriagada, “Atmospheric microplastics and nanoplastics as vectors of primary air pollutants - A theoretical study on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) case,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 318, p. 120860, Feb. 2023, doi: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2022.120860.

[4] P. D. Darbre, “Chemical components of plastics as endocrine disruptors: Overview and commentary,” Birth Defects Res., vol. 112, no. 17, pp. 1300–1307, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1002/BDR2.1778.

[5] S. Basak, M. K. Das, and A. K. Duttaroy, “Plastics derived endocrine-disrupting compounds and their effects on early development,” Birth Defects Res., vol. 112, no. 17, pp. 1308–1325, 2020, doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1741.

[6] A. Lucas, S. Herrmann, and M. Lucas, “The role of endocrine-disrupting phthalates and bisphenols in cardiometabolic disease: The evidence is mounting,” Curr. Opin. Endocrinol. Diabetes Obes., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 87–94, Apr. 2022, doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000712.

[7] Y. Gálvez-Ontiveros, S. Páez, C. Monteagudo, and A. Rivas, “Endocrine Disruptors in Food: Impact on Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Diseases,” Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 4, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.3390/NU12041158.

[8] Q. Chen, A. Allgeier, D. Yin, and H. Hollert, “Leaching of endocrine disrupting chemicals from marine microplastics and mesoplastics under common life stress conditions,” Environ. Int., vol. 130, p. 104938, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.1016/J.ENVINT.2019.104938.

[9] R. HAMPL and L. STARKA, “Endocrine Disruptors and Gut Microbiome Interactions,” Physiol. Res., vol. 69, no. Suppl 2, p. S211, Sep. 2020, doi: 10.33549/PHYSIOLRES.934513.

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